พริกไทยสุดยอดเครื่องเทศของไทย

พริกไทย (ชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์: Piper nigrum) เป็นพืชที่ได้รับการยอมรับว่าเป็นราชาของเครื่องเทศที่มีกลิ่นฉุน และเป็นเครื่องเทศที่ให้รสเผ็ดร้อน สามารถนำมาทำพริกไทยแห้งเป็นเครื่องปรุงอาหาร ซึ่งถ้าทำแห้งทั้งเปลือกจะได้พริกไทยดำเนื่องจากเปลือกเมื่อทำให้แห้งจะมีสีดำ ส่วนพริกไทยขาวได้จากการลอกเปลือกออกก่อน พบทั้งการใช้ประกอบอาหารทั้งผลแห้งและผลสดที่มีสีเขียว หรือผลแห้งป่นเป็นผงเรียกพริกไทยป่น

 

ลักษณะของพริกไทยโดยทั่ว

พริกไทย เป็นไม้เลื้อย เจริญในแนวดิ่ง สูงได้ประมาณ 10 เมตรหรือมากกว่า มีลำต้นหลักและแตกแขนงออกเป็นพุ่ม มีการสร้างรากพิเศษสั้นๆบริเวณข้อเพื่อยึดเกาะสิ่งรอบข้าง ช่วยในการพยุงลำต้น ใบเดี่ยว รูปรี เรียงสลับ โคนใบและปลายใบแหลม หลังใบสีเขียวเข้ม มันวาว ท้องใบสีเขียวอ่อน ชื่อดอกแบบช่อเชิงลด ดอกย่อยสีขาวหรือสีเหลืองอ่อน 50-150 ดอกต่อช่อ ผลทรงกลมแบบเมล็ดเดียวแข็ง เส้นผ่านศูนย์กลางประมาณ 6 มม. ผลอ่อนมีสีเขียวเมื่อสุกมีสีแดง ติดผลประมาณ 50-60 เมล็ดต่อช่อผล

ลำต้น สามารถเจริญเติบโตเป็นกิ่งข้าง หรือกิ่งกระโดง โดยกิ่งกระโดงจะมีความสมบรูณ์และขนาดใหญ่ ตั้งดิ่งจากผิวดิน

 

ส่วน กิ่งข้างหรือกิ่งแขนง จะขนานแตกออกเป็นทรงพุ่ม ใบ พริกไทยเป็นพืชใบเลี้ยงคู่ เป็นประเภทใบเดี่ยวเกิดสลับตามข้อของลำต้น มีลักษณะเป็นรูปไข่โคนใบใหญ่ ฐานใบกลม กว้างประมาณ 6-10 เซนติเมตร ยาว 7-14 เซนติเมตร ปลายใบแหลม ลักษณะคล้ายใบพลู พื้นผิวใบเรียบ ผิวใบด้านบนเป็นมันสีเขียวเข้มถึงเขียวอ่อนไล่กันไปจากใบอ่อนถึงใบแก่ ด้านล่างใบสีจะจางกว่าด้านบน ขนาดใบและเส้นใบจะแตกต่างกันระหว่างสันของเส้นใบจะนูน

 

ดอก จะเกิดตรงข้ามกับใบในส่วนของกิ่งแขนง ออกดอกเป็นช่อ ความยาวประมาณ 7-14 เซนติเมตร ไม่มีก้านช่อ ดอกตัวผู้แยกกับดอกตัวเมีย แต่อยู่ในช่อเดียวกัน ผลเล็ก มีสีเขียวเข้มและจะค่อยๆ เปลี่ยนเป็นสีเหลืองและแดงเมื่อแก่จัด ระยะเวลาตั้งแต่ออกดอกจนเก็บเป็นพริกไทยเมล็ด 6-7 เดือน

ผล ค่อนข้างกลม เรียงตัวกันหนาแน่นบริเวณแกนกลางของช่อผล ผลอ่อนจะมีสีเขียวเข้มและจะค่อยๆ เปลี่ยนไปตามอายุผล ขนาดเส้นผ่าศูนย์กลาง 3-4 มิลลิเมตร มีกลิ่นฉุน รสชาติเผ็ด เกิดจากสารแอลคาลอยด์ของไพเพอรี

 

สรรพคุณพริกไทย 7 ข้อที่น่าสนใจ

  1. เมล็ดพริกไทยมีสารฟีนอลิกและสารพิเพอรีน ซึ่งช่วยต่อต้านอนุมูลอิสระ (เมล็ด)
  2. เมล็ดพริกไทยมีสารพิเพอรีน (Piperine) ซึ่งเป็นสารอัลคาลอยด์ที่มีส่วนช่วยรักษาและป้องกันการเกิดโรคอัลไซเมอร์ในผู้สูงอายุได้ (อ้างอิง : รศ.ดร.อรุณศรี ปรีเปรม อาจารย์จากคณะเภสัชศาสตร์) (เมล็ด)
  3. สรรพคุณช่วยป้องกันและต่อต้านสารก่อมะเร็ง ช่วยเร่งการทำงานของตับให้ทำลายสารพิษได้มากขึ้น (เมล็ด)
  4. เมล็ดพริกไทยมีฤทธิ์ในการช่วยกระตุ้นประสาท (เมล็ด)
  5. ช่วยแก้โรคลมบ้าหมูหรือลมชักได้ (เมล็ด)
  6. ด้านสรรพคุณทางยาแผนตะวันตก พริกไทยดำมีสารจำพวกอัลคาลอยด์ ชื่อว่า ไปเปอรีน (piperine) มีรายงานว่ามีผลกดประสาทในระบบประสาทส่วนกลาง ลดไข้ ลดอาการเจ็บปวด ลดการอักเสบ และฆ่าแมลงได้ รวมทั้งยังมีการรรายงานว่าสารไปเปอรีนมีส่วนช่วยในการเพิ่มขึ้นของเม็ดสีในผิวหนัง
  7. ด้านสรรพคุณทางยาพื้นบ้าน มีการใช้พริกไทยในผาอายุรเวทในแถบเอเชียใต้ ส่วนมากใช้รักษาและบรรเทาอาการเกี่ยวกับระบบย่อยอาหาร ขับพยาธิ แก้ลมจุกเสียดแน่น ท้องอืดเฟ้อ ขับลม ขับเสมหะ ขับเหงื่อ ขับปัสสาวะ บำรุงธาตุแก้อาการอาหารไม่ย่อย ระงับอาการอาเจียน ผ่อนคลายอาการไม่สบายจากอาหารเป็นพิษจากอาหารทะเลและเนื้อสัตว์

อ้างอิง http://www.krataiku.com

One Reply to “พริกไทยสุดยอดเครื่องเทศของไทย”

  1. ?General Essay Crafting Tips
    Despite the fact that, as Shakespeare stated, “the pen is mightier than the sword,” the pen itself isn’t really enough to make an effective writer. In fact, though we may all like to think of ourselves given that the next Shakespeare, inspiration alone isn’t really the key to effective essay crafting. You see, the conventions of English essays are additional formulaic than you may well think – and, in lots of ways, it tend to be as hassle-free as counting to 5.
    The 5 Paragraph Essay
    Though considerably more state-of-the-art academic papers are a category all their have, the essential big school or college essay has the following standardized, 5 paragraph structure:
    Though it may sound formulaic – and, clearly, it is – the idea behind this structure is to ensure it is easier to the reader to navigate the ideas put forth in an essay. You see, if your essay has the same structure as every other just one, any reader should be able to efficiently and easily obtain the tips most relevant to them.
    The Introduction
    Plan to see sample essays? Check out our Sample Essay section where you can actually see scholarship essays, admissions essays, plus much more!
    The principle purpose of your introduction is to current your position (this is usually known given that the “thesis” or “argument”) within the issue at hand but effective introductory paragraphs are so a lot of even more than that. Before you even get to this thesis statement, for example, the essay should begin which includes a “hook” that grabs the reader’s attention and makes them hope to scan on. Examples of effective hooks include relevant quotations (“no man is definitely an island”) or surprising statistics (“three out of four doctors report that…”).
    Only then, with the reader’s attention “hooked,” should you move on to the thesis. The thesis should be a clear, one-sentence explanation of your position that leaves no doubt inside of the reader’s mind about which side you’re on from the beginning of your essay.
    Following the thesis, you should make available a mini-outline which previews the examples you will use to aid your thesis with the rest with the essay. Not only does this tell the reader what to expect during the paragraphs to come but it really also gives them a clearer understanding of what the essay is about.
    Finally, designing the last sentence in such a way has the included benefit of seamlessly moving the reader to the number one paragraph for the body within the paper. During this way we can see that the important introduction does not really want to be quite a bit greater than three or four sentences in size. If yours is a great deal longer you might probably aspire to consider editing it down a bit!
    Below, by way of example, is really an introductory paragraph to an essay in response to the following question:
    “Do we learn much more from finding out that we have made mistakes or from our successful steps?”
    “No man is surely an island” and, as this sort of, he is constantly shaped and influenced by his experiences. People learn by doing and, accordingly, learn considerably significantly more from their mistakes than their success. For proof of this, consider examples from the two science and everyday know-how.
    DO – Shell out Attention to Your Introductory Paragraph
    As a result of this is the to start with paragraph of your essay it is your opportunity to give the reader the most popular number one impression workable. The introductory paragraph not only gives the reader an idea of what you will talk about but also shows them how you will talk about it. Put a disproportionate amount of effort into this – a lot more than the 20% a rather simple calculation would suggest – and you will be rewarded accordingly.
    DO NOT – Use Passive Voice or I/My
    Active voice, wherein the subjects direct steps rather than let the steps “happen to” them – “he scored a 97%” instead of “he was given a 97%” – is a really a lot of a little more powerful and attention-grabbing way to write down. In the same time, unless it could be a personal narrative, avoid personal pronouns like I, My, or Me. Try instead to be significantly more general and you will have your reader hooked.
    The Body Paragraphs
    The middle paragraphs of your essay are collectively known given that the body paragraphs and, as alluded to earlier mentioned, the main purpose of the body paragraph is to spell out in detail the examples that aid your thesis.
    For your to start with body paragraph you should use your strongest argument or most significant example unless some other a good deal more obvious beginning point (as inside the case of chronological explanations) is required. The initial sentence of this paragraph should be the topic sentence in the paragraph that directly relates to the examples listed inside of the mini-outline of introductory paragraph.
    A an individual sentence body paragraph that simply cites the example of “George Washington” or “LeBron James” isn’t enough, however. No, following this an effective essay will follow up on this topic sentence by explaining to the reader, in detail, who or what an example is and, alot more importantly, why that example is relevant.
    Even just about the most famous examples demand context. For example, George Washington’s life was extremely complex – by implementing him as an example, do you intend to refer to his honesty, bravery, or maybe even his wooden teeth? The reader needs to know this and it is your job because the writer to paint the right picture for them. To do this, it is really a useful idea to supply the reader with 5 or six relevant facts about the life (in general) or event (in particular) you believe most clearly illustrates your point.
    Having done that, you then have to have to explain exactly why this example proves your thesis. The importance of this step cannot be understated (although it clearly is often underlined); this is, after all, the whole reason you might be providing the example from the to begin with destination. Seal the deal by directly stating why this example is relevant.
    Right here can be an example of the body paragraph to proceed the essay begun previously mentioned:
    Take, by way of example, Thomas Edison. The famed American inventor rose to prominence while in the late 19th century on the grounds that of his successes, yes, but even he felt that these successes had been the result of his several failures. He did not succeed in his focus on an individual of his most famous inventions, the lightbulb, on his very first try nor even on his hundred and initially try. In fact, it took him even more than 1,000 attempts to make the to start with incandescent bulb but, along the way, he learned rather a deal. As he himself says, “I did not fail a thousand times but instead succeeded in finding a thousand ways it would not perform.” Thus Edison demonstrated both equally in thought and action how instructive mistakes may very well be.
    DO: Tie Things Together
    The initially sentence – the topic sentence – of your body paragraphs needs to have a lot individual pieces to be truly effective. Not only should it open which includes a transition that signals the change from 1 idea to the next but also it should (ideally) also have a basic thread which ties all belonging to the body paragraphs together. For example, if you happen to utilized “first” during the primary body paragraph then you should chosen “secondly” inside of the second or “on the a particular hand” and “on the opposite hand” accordingly.
    DO NOT: Be Too General
    Examples should be relevant to the thesis and so should the explanatory details you present for them. It is usually hard to summarize the 100 % richness of the given example in just a couple of lines so make them count. In case you are trying to explain why George Washington is usually a awesome example of the sturdy leader, for instance, his childhood adventure with the cherry tree (though interesting in another essay) should probably be skipped over.
    A Word on Transitions
    You may have noticed that, though the higher than paragraph aligns pretty closely with the provided outline, there’s a person massive exception: the 1st several words. These words are example of the transitional phrase – others include “furthermore,” “moreover,” but also “by contrast” and “on another hand” – and are the hallmark of outstanding producing.
    Transitional phrases are useful for showing the reader where one particular section ends and another begins. It may be helpful to see them given that the written equivalent belonging to the kinds of spoken cues chosen in formal speeches that signal the close of a single list of ideas in addition to the beginning of another. In essence, they lead the reader from one particular section for the paragraph of another.
    To further illustrate this, consider the second body paragraph of our example essay:
    Inside of a similar way, we are all like Edison in our very own way. Whenever we learn a new ability – be it riding a bike, driving a car, or cooking a cake – we learn from our mistakes. Couple, if any, are able to go from training wheels to your marathon inside of a solitary working day but these early experiences (these so-called mistakes) can help us improve our general performance over time. You cannot make a cake without breaking some eggs and, likewise, we learn by doing and doing inevitably indicates making mistakes.
    Hopefully this example not only will provide another example of an effective body paragraph but also illustrates how transitional phrases can be utilized to distinguish around them.
    The Summary
    Although the summary paragraph comes with the conclude of your essay it should not be seen as an afterthought. Because the final paragraph is represents your last chance to make your case and, as these, should follow an extremely rigid format.
    1 way to think within the summary is, paradoxically, as a second introduction since it does in fact contain a wide selection of on the same functionality. Whilst it does not really want to be too extended – four well-crafted sentence should be enough – it can make or break and essay.
    Effective conclusions open by using a concluding transition (“in summary,” “in the conclude,” etc.) and an allusion to the “hook” utilized inside the introductory paragraph. After you should immediately offer you a restatement of your thesis statement.
    This should be the fourth or fifth time you have repeated your thesis so even while you should utilize a range of word choice from the body paragraphs it is mostly a acceptable idea to implement some (but not all) in the original language you put into use inside of the introduction. This echoing effect not only reinforces your argument but also ties it nicely to the second key element within the summary: a brief (two or three words is enough) analyze on the three main points from the body with the paper.
    Having done all of that, the final element – and final sentence in your own essay – should be a “global statement” or “call to action” that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an conclude.
    While in the conclude, then, a particular thing is clear: mistakes do far way more to help us learn and improve than successes. As examples from the two science and everyday encounter can attest, if we treat every mistake not as a misstep but as a learning working experience the possibilities for self-improvement are limitless.
    DO: Be Powerful
    The summary paragraph is often a difficult paragraph to write down effectively but, as it is your last chance to convince or otherwise impress the reader, it is worth investing some time in. Take this opportunity to restate your thesis with confidence; once you existing your argument as “obvious” then the reader could just do the same.
    DO NOT: Copy the Primary Paragraph
    Although one can reuse the same key words inside the summary as you did inside introduction, try not to copy whole phrases word for word. Instead, try to try this last paragraph to really clearly show your skills as a writer by being as artful on your rephrasing as plausible.
    Taken together, then, the overall structure of the 5 paragraph essay should seem something like this:
    Introduction Paragraph
    An attention-grabbing “hook”
    A thesis statement
    A preview belonging to the three subtopics you will discuss within the body paragraphs.
    Initial Body Paragraph
    Topic sentence which states the to start with subtopic and opens along with a transition
    Supporting details or examples
    An explanation of how this example proves your thesis
    Second Body Paragraph
    Topic sentence which states the second subtopic and opens having a transition
    Supporting details or examples
    An explanation of how this example proves your thesis
    Third Body Paragraph
    Topic sentence which states the third subtopic and opens by using a transition
    Supporting details or examples
    An explanation of how this example proves your thesis
    Concluding Paragraph
    Concluding Transition, Reverse “hook,” and restatement of thesis.
    Rephrasing main topic and subtopics.
    World-wide statement or call to action.
    Increased tips to make your essay shine
    Planning Pays
    Although it may look like a waste of time – certainly during exams where time is tight – it is almost always a lot better to brainstorm a bit before beginning your essay. This should allow you to definitely uncover the most excellent supporting ideas – rather than simply the number one ones that come to mind – and position them inside your essay accordingly.
    Your most efficient supporting idea – the just one that most strongly makes your case and, simultaneously, about which you have one of the most knowledge – should go very first. Even the best-written essays can fail as a result of of ineffectively placed arguments.
    Aim for Wide variety
    Sentences and vocabulary of varying complexity are just one of your hallmarks of effective producing. When you find yourself producing, try to avoid implementing the same words and phrases over and over again. You do not be required to be a walking thesaurus but a small variance can make the same idea sparkle.
    If you should are asked about “money,” you could try “wealth” or “riches.” For the same time, avoid beginning sentences the dull pattern of “subject + verb + direct object.” Although examples of this are harder to give, consider our producing throughout this article as one particular big example of sentence structure number.
    Practice! Practice! Practice!
    On the conclude, though, remember that wonderful creating does not happen by accident. Although we have endeavored to explain everything that goes into effective essay crafting in as clear and concise a way as quite possible, it is quite a bit easier in theory than it is in practice.
    As a result, we recommend that you just practice producing sample essays on different topics. Even if they are not masterpieces at earliest, a bit of regular practice will soon change that – and make you superior prepared when it comes to the real thing.
    Now that you’ve learned how to write down an effective essay, check out our Sample Essays so you can still see how they are done in practice.
    Essay Crafting Center
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